Even based on its name, cognitive psychology suggests that it a branch of psychology. Precisely, it is the branch of psychology studying mental processes, such as how humans think, perceive, recall, and learn. Cognitive psychology is also part of the larger subject area of cognitive science, which is a branch of psychology relating to other fields, such as neuroscience, linguistics, and philosophy. The gist focal points of cognitive psychology are on how individuals get, process, and keep information. Contrary to behaviorism that concentrates only on observable behaviors, the field of cognitive psychology is focuses on internal mental states. In addition, contrary to psychoanalysis that focuses deeply on individual perceptions, cognitive psychology utilizes scientific research methodologies in studying mental processes.

Descriptively, four key milestones denote the development of the cognitive method as a conventional psychological perspective (Bernstein & Nash, 2008). These four milestones are the shortfalls of the behaviorist outlook of psychology; the capability for abstract concepts to explain the previously mentioned shortfalls; the linking of abstract concepts with observable mechanisms via the medium of AI (artificial intelligence) and neuroscience; and the actualization that the depictions and actions of cognition can compare with the internal operating of a computer.

The foundation of cognitive psychology can be associated with Dr. Alfred Adler, hence the phrase Adlerian psychology. Adlerian psychology was already reasonably far along, at the time moment Freud asked Adler to assist develop psychological managements of the neuroses. A decade later, after Freud had maintained that every associate of the psychoanalytic society consents that sexual momenta are the key factors in the shaping of normal as well as neurotic persona, Adler disputed Freud before leaving to create his own approach with about 12 associates of Freud’s group. Adler’s novel approach became the cornerstone for all the forms of cognitive psychology and therapy that later developed.

In 1954, Dr. Albert Ellis started instructing using his “Rational Emotive Therapy,” the method he claimed was predominately his own creation. However, Ellis gave credit to Adler for his paving of the way. Later, in 1975, Dr. Beck Aaron released publication that is believably among the first of several books covering the area of cognitive therapy. Dr. Beck Aaron also supposed he had come up with his approach on his own, despite having very close similarities with Ellis’ and Adler’ works, which came earlier than Dr. Aaron’s did. Presently, Adlerian Psychology is going through revitalization, and psychotherapists are increasingly starting to see that right along, they have been utilizing approaches innovated by Adler, such as the Adlerian Cognitive Therapy.

Speaking of psychotherapists, the early 20th century behaviorism could not explicate a wide range of observable behaviors authenticated by psychologists existing at that time. For example, the coordinative mechanism between stimulus and response (S-R) could not account for the propagative quality of fixed-action conventions, human language, or even critical-period learning limitations. In fact, behaviorists did not successfully explicate how human beings attain language.

The initial cognitive reactions to these shortfalls in account, revolved about abstract concepts far gotten rid of from scientifically consistent verification. For instance, Clark Hull’s definition of the mechanism of underpinning was in the perspective of drive reduction, hypothecating theoretical concepts, including primary drives as well as secondary drives (Thyer, 1999). The weakness of these précis concepts was that they were not provable through observable behavior; they were only intrinsically speculative.