The wolves have way of life has been much admired by many a tribes. There exists so much literature on wolves either on how they should be conserved or more popularly on how they are related to human beings through culture. Wockner and Campbell (2005) on writing about wolves and culture indicate that the popularity of the wolves is not because of what they are but rather because of the attachment they have secured to the culture of some people: “the debate about wolves is very little about the actual animals and very much about the power of culture” (Wockner & Campbell 2005, p. 87). They move on to explain about the culture of the people, stories composed on the co-existence of the wolves and human beings. They write about the European views of the wolves in reference to culture. For the Europeans, there are those wolves which have significance culturally as well as those which are not (Wockner & Campbell, 2005).
The Aboriginal people in Canada among other tribes have been noted to view wolves with much more favorable light. The Aboriginal people have drawn many parallels between the wolf pack members and the members of a tribe. The wolf’s superb skills at hunting have made it envy for many tribes. The wolf has been known to be a superb defender of its home, a task which had to be carried out by the society members (Wollert, 2010).
The Pawnee people were often referred to as the wolf people because of their wolf like abilities. They identified most strongly with the wolves of all the tribes. It is said that the hand signal for the wolf was similar to that for the Pawnee people. The Pawnee people lived like the wolves in many aspects, for instance, “traveling all day and night, making long journeys living on carcasses they found or on no food at all” (Wollert 2010, par. 3). It is said these people in the course of travelling they could not keep a straight path but ever continuously kept on changing their direction position. This is very typical of the wolves. They are said to possess eyesight as sharp as those of wolves and very sensitive to any noise.
With the help soft pads on the feet, the wolves are known to move silently and effortlessly across plain while being very attentive to any change taking place. The Pawnee people when entering an enemy territory behaved similarly to the wolves, they moved like the wolves. They wore wolf pelts with the in the course of exploring an enemy territory. The head of the wolf pelt would come up over their heads. The Pawnee people were good at howling just like the dogs and incase when approaching an enemy camp they are detected by dogs, they could howl just like dogs: their howling was so convincing that the dogs would become quite.
Pawn people displayed strange behaviors like those of wolves, for instance, if they wanted to move to the top of a hill during the daylight for the purpose of having a proper view of the enemy territory, they would wear a white wolf skin. They would then trot to the top of the hill by dropping on all fours. Upon reaching the hill top they would, “smell the ground, lift a leg as to urinate, and sit on their haunches” (Wollert 2010, par. 6). This made them appear as wolves from afar thus they could not arise any suspension. The Pawnee people named their warriors the white wolves. Among these people the wolves were respected for their abilities, “hunting skills, endurance, and stoicism. A wolf’s devotion to family and pack, providing food for all, paralleled that of the Aboriginal people” (Wollert 2010, par. 6).
Among the Sioux, the wolf was referred to as the “animal that looks like a dog but is a powerful spirit” (Wollert 2010a, par. 2). The Cheyenne medicine men had the arrows of hunters rubbed with wolf far to increase the probability of successful hunting. The Nootka people celebrated spiritual ties to the wolves. Among the Cherokee people, killing of a wolf was unheard of because of the fear that the wolf’s siblings would surely avenge the death of their parent. Among the Crow people, hunting was done while wearing a wolf skin. The Hidatsa women rubbed their bellies with wolf skin to alleviate difficulties at childbirth. Among the Cree, “divine wolves visited earth when the northern lights would shine during winter” (Wollert 2010a, par. 4).
The Chippewa tell of stories in which wolves brought human being food. Among the Delaware a change in the weather could be announced through the howl of a wolf. Among the Hopis, a wolf is one of the Katchinas: “the costumed dancers who represent the powers of the universe” (Wollert 2010a, par. 6). The Indian Creation myth involved wolves. The wolves have formed deep roots to the culture of some tribes that even poems likewise songs have been composed in their honor (Wockner and Campbell 2009, p. 94).
Over time, the wolves have come to mean different things to different people. To some it has been revered as deity while to some it has been reviled as a devil. After long campaigns against the wolves, the policy against them is being changed and slowly their numbers are being regained. This however has caused a lot of debate on the wolf population regaining their numbers. Ranchers and farmers are of the opinion that wolves should be eliminated because they predate on their livestock. The wolf conservationists are putting up a spirited fight to save the wolves. In Canada and USA, wolves are protected from unrestricted hunting (“Wolf” 2010).
Nie (2003) writes about moral conflicts which have been raised due to wolf restoration. He claims that the wolves present difficult ethical and moral challenges. According to Nie (2003), the restoration challenge posed, “goes beyond science, biology, and ‘objective’ wildlife management” (Nie 2003 p. 66). He claims that the conflicts will be displayed in future in a more open manner. He argues that the three powers dictating this debate emanate from the political economical and cultural centers. Sharpe, Norton and Donnelley (2001) write about the restoration of the wolves. They argue that many people view the restoration of wolves as a threat. The main reason for this fear is, “diminishing of property and government interference with private lives” (Sharpe, Norton and Donnelley p. 30). They claim that the restoration of the wolves should be well deliberated to avoid the wolf restoration turning wolves into hated and mistrusted animals. They argue that it will be prudent that all the parties to the conflict are listened to carefully and values from both sides considered. They advocate for wolf restoration studies to be carried out in a reason and responsible manner (Sharpe, Norton and Donnelley, 2003).
Wolves as animals are of two species: the gray and the eastern type. Wolves usually live in packs which consists of between two to none wolves. The packs have got territorial in which they hunt with each territorial size depending on the availability of preys. Wolves are closely related to human beings because of the admired characters that they posses.
Wolves have deeply involved in the culture of the Aboriginal people and other many tribes. Many of the traits displayed by the wolves are much admired and are actually significant for life. The Pawnee people have found a lot of wisdom in the wolves and have adapted the wolf’s way of life especially where the warriors are in reference. Apart from warriors, hunters have also sought to know the hunting skills of the wolves. The medicine men have used the wolf either to bring success to the hunting or some other luck. The wolf has been linked to the spirit world and it has been reported that his howl is often an indication of a change in weather. There are many myths which link human being to the wolf. Poems and songs have been created in honor of the wolf. The wolf though viewed negatively by other people has a big significance in the lives of the different cultures. Their way of life displays a lot of wisdom which can be adopted by human being to better his life. It is this wisdom in these animals that have made them to be held in such a high esteem.