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Currently, Japan has been noted to be having the longest life expectancy at birth. It is averaged that the life expectancy it rated at 82.0 years among Japan women and men. Many factors have been likened to these tabled figures such as national insurance systems, nutritional factors, economic prosperity, environment factors, quality health services and social security systems. Researches carried out on Japan’s life expectancy statistics showed that improved management of dieses such as tuberculosis and gastroenteritis an pneumonia significantly surmounted to survival of youth and children after the world war. With regards to these factors there have been disparities from one region to another over the major contributors to life expectancies. More so it is alleged that life expectancy for developed countries is longer than that for developing or undeveloped countries.
However, provides a good study area for establishing the relationship between income and life expectancy for its population. Further other factors such a racial discrimination is excluded since it has embraced the spirit of racial equality. It is posited that life expectance does not depend on the income. To ascertain the validity of such an allegation formed the basis of this research paper. Calculation of life expectancy is calculated by use of tables displaying the number of persons dying at each age interval, the observed decline in mortality and infant mortality escalated by infectious diseases usually have considerable impacts on life expectancy of many regions, countries and continents. Therefore, by use of these tables, Japan life expectancy will be evaluated.
In the research work several data was collected to identify the relationship between life expectancy and income. The research was conducted on regional groups rather than the 47 prefectures in order to capture the trends and situations in region. The study area was classified into regions namely Kanto, Kyushu, Chubu, Kinki, Shikoku, Chugoku and Kyushu (Appendix 1). The form of currency used in this study was Japanese Yen (¥) and the standard exchange rate in relation to the $ included $1 dollar was equivalent to ¥115 in 2007, 2008 the exchange rate was $1 =¥1050, 2009, $1dollar was standing at exchange rate of ¥95 and 2011 data reflected an exchange rate of 1 U.S. dollar at ¥85. Definition used in this work to refer to life expectance relates to that observed at birth.
To show trends in income and life expectancy by region was shown by the first two data seta. Using this data the life expectancy by region was computed followed by determination of income per son to ascertain income disparities in the population of each region. In addition, base n the fact that different have different life styles, an evaluation was determined using the criteria of dietary intakes. Food self sufficiency was used in this research project in order to ascertain how income affects the food consumption and its contribution to income in relation to life expectancy of Japan.
Food lf sufficiency was to used in order to evaluate in come distribution for an individual and the type of food consumed have a bearing in ones life prior to conception and up bring of young children. Apart from food sufficiency, medical care costs were also used as a basis to gauge one income and accessibility to quality services in relation to survival of infant children in Japan. Overall medical expenditure as preferred over individualistic assessment since there is significance difference in income based on rural and urban life. Vulnerabilities to mortality rates correlates positively with income of an individual thus determine the trend in life expectancy of each region. The data obtained was sourced from secondary materials and its presentation was done in form of graphs and tables.
Results and discussion
This table shows the region by region life expectancy as per the year 2005. Life expectancy for the all the study areas are generally high. However the longest life expectancy is reported Chubu region for men. But for women the highest value was recorded in Chigoku. Figure 3: In this data, income per resident was collected and presented in the table. From the table a graph shoeing the trends was drawn as shown in figure 3-b. From the table and graph it is evident that incomer in rural areas is much lower than that of the urban centers. This is exemplified by low figures recorded for regions such as Hokkaido/Tohoku region, Kyushu and shikoku region that is 2540000, 2519000 and 2468000respectively. Kinki and Chugoku have their income per resident at 29670000 and 2867000respectively which are close to the national statistic averages of 2878000. The overall trend is clearly show y the graph in which it is obviously represented the further the area of study is from Kanto region the lower the income.
In figure a correlation is established to ascertain the contribution of food self sufficiency in relation japans citizen life expectancy. I the figure, Hokkaido and Tohoku exhibit the highest self food sufficiency values which are directly related to a high rice production in the regions. High self food sufficiency determines regions income expenditure. Regions with low food security implies high expenditure in attaining the basics needs thereby marginalizing compliance to quality medical services thus poor antenatal and prenatal care for expectant others which transpires into high mortality rates. This is significant since bed on researches such as the one carried on life expectance and income relationship after the Second World War, life expectancy progressively increased with increase in supply of protein and energy intake after World War II. This study showed a transition in phases from restorative, table and the variable phase. Therefore, with regards to such expository studies, it is critical to value the fact that food sufficiency boosts a regions life expectance since there is reduce expenditure in terms of food security and quality medical services.
The figure is used to show the medical care costs by region as per November 2010. The tabulated values are based on the calculations made on data collected from 47 prefectures. From the figure kanto region has the highest costs of medical care of 1¥ 29,914,658,548 while the lowest value was recorded in Shikoku region at ¥ 28,184,876. Nevertheless, the second most developed region Kinki has the second highest medical care. From this data it is evident that high life expectancy if more pronounced in less developed regions than the more developed one. Developed regions encompass big cities such as Osaka, Nagoya, Yokohama, Fukuoka, and Tokyo. The advanced technology may be a factor towards the decreasing life expectancy and escalating medical care costs.
In conclusion, the research study demonstrates that income in Japan plays an important role in the observed life expectancy. Analysis of the medical care services reveals that in areas with high expenditure the life expectance of these regions is very high. Assessment of the most developed regions such as Kanto with major cities such as Tokyo, Osaka and Yokohama, shows that reduced life expectancy as opposed to the expectation of development to boost life expectancy. Assessment of food security in terms of sufficiency shows that, income of an individual determines his or her readiness to handle causes of mortality rates such as diseases, poor living conditions.