|← Life Expectancy and Income in Japan||Newborn Stage of Development →|
Generally, people can be classified into various categories. For instance, we have disabled people and the able people. The disabled people have been defined as those with mental, sensory and, or physical impairments. The physically disabled persons can be; the blind, deaf, lame and dumb. The mental health conditions that may lead to disability include; dementia, bipolar disorder, depression, schizophrenia and obsessive compulsive disorders, all with varying degrees of severity. The impairment is such that it causes adverse effect when it comes to carrying out daily activities. The impairment is considered to last for not less than one year. Disability can be permanent or temporally and compromises the effectiveness of such people compared to an average person with no disabilities. Disability has affected a large percentage of today’s population. Unlike in the ancient days, recently the disabled people have been encouraged to participate in the society to their full potential. As a result, discrimination has been exhibited in various places (Johnstone 112).
It is such a disgust to realize that the disabled people continue being stigmatized. The discrimination operates throughout society and seems to be supported by various culture as well as history. The disabled are pitied, ridiculed and sometimes held with suspicion in the society. In the past, they have been blocked to some extent from various aspects of life in the community. Women and girls with disabilities seems to be double marginalized based on their gender and impairment. This is because of their expectations and societal expectation. Many societies are patriarchal and the women –girls’ roles include motherhood and home making. With this societal expectations, the women and girls with disabilities experience adverse discrimination as compared to the non disabled peers. Girls and women with disabilities are often more prone to sexual and physical abuse more so if living in institution lacking strict protection and are seen as easy targets (Thomas 78).
According to Johnstone (56) disabled persons have experienced discrimination in various social settings such as at work place. It is also so conspicuous in employers’ policy making, where they give occupations of low status to the disabled. For instance, an employment quota scheme catering for the disabled employment act 1944 was meant to secure disabled people’s right of employment in Britain. However, the government that followed did not enforce it. The specification in the scheme is that employers should take a third of their work force from the disabled. In Britain (1980s), the disabled were seen to stay jobless for more than two years unlike their non-disabled counterparts.
The opportunities that arose for the disabled were of low skill, little pay and with minimal chances of promotion. Challenges are experienced in many work premises even today allover the world and may include; inappropriate infrastructures. Various Governments all over the world have passed laws and Acts protecting the disabled. Provisions of the Acts are such that they prevent discrimination during job recruitment process and promotion opportunities. During recruitment, companies are not allowed by the law to turn down applications based on disability.
Most business premises lack essential facilities such as documents written in Braille, special paths for wheelchair, special guides for the blind as well as people to interpret sign language. To avoid discrimination, these infrastructural provisions need be built in business premises. Ponthier and Devlin (43) argue that, the law safeguards the interests of the disabled within the institution. One common provision revises periodic productivity as per the set expectation. Other laws require the companies to employ specific personnel who assist the disabled within the work place. Other companies have trained dogs that assist disabled persons. Many companies have also come up with a medical cover that caters for their medical expenses. In some companies, a special retirement package for the disabled people has been set aside. Other facilities that have been provided by some companies include; unique keyboards and computers. Commuting has also been facilitated by the use of chauffeured vehicle within the work place.
There is also discrimination in the transport industry whereby the infrastructures may not favor the accessibility by the disabled. Trains and vehicles lack disabled friendly means of boarding them. The planes have not been well equipped to meet the needs of the disabled. Some companies such as AirAsia resolved some of the issues putting challenges to the disabled people. Some of the measures taken to make it easy for the disabled people to fly using the airline are ambulifts. These are meant to facilitate boarding and disembarking of people with disabilities. The AirAsia Company also provide aisle chair for passenger mobility in the plane.
The toilets of the aircrafts are fixed with handlebars for passengers’ convenience. In travel and tour industry, the physically disabled are left out. This is because many hotels lack accessible rooms specifically made to accommodate wheel chair free movements. Features that would make a room accessible include; large doorway, wide hallway, grabs bars, and accessible rest rooms. Travelers have of late used the internet to compare shops and make reservations. They are also guaranteed that a reservation booked through online in a travel agency worldwide is at the lowest late. This agency segregate the disabled people and does not give them that guarantee (Oliver and Barnes 78).
The disabled experience social isolations since they can hardly access leisure facilities such as the sports stadia, pubs, concert theatres, restaurants, art galleries and concert halls. Many of these premises lack accessibility by the disabled. They also fail to provide qualified personnel who may assist these people in various ways such as guiding, interpreting speeches into sign language, or giving physical support. In the society, we also have people with learning disabilities. The people with this type of disability may be physically challenged and this impairs their accessibility to social venues. As a result they are hindered from getting involved in particular social activities. Another group of people with learning disability may be mentally impaired and this affects to some extent their social skills. This challenges their move to socialize with people who are not disabled in the society.
The limited chances to socialize end up blocking them from enjoying leisure and social activities. It has come to the people’s knowledge that social opportunities in the society for the learning disabled are limited. This limitation can distance the disabled even further from people of all abilities. The society has come up with ways of empowering people with learning disability in order to acquire skills that would lead to an active social life. By doing so, the disabled have a golden opportunity to have many friends and build relationships. By encouraging the people with learning impairment to socialize in their day care centers, they get a chance to develop unique personal interests as well as discovering their talents. This can also be a doorway for obtaining new skills hence widening employment opportunity, which means having a more independent life. Support and guidance with social skills seems to benefit some people with learning disability.
By encouraging people with learning disability to socialize with people of all ability, not only enlarge their social cycle but also shed some light to the society about the difficulties encountered by people with disability. In the UK, the government modernized the services given to the people with learning disability. By the year 2001, it was felt that the day cares center were not giving enough constructive activities that would encourage personal development and socializing. As a result, a plan was developed to include families of the people with the disability while constructing support services. Efforts have been made to link up community-based activities with the day care centers for the persons with disability. Opportunities to socialize have been improved by some specialists (Oliver and Barnes 72)
The advanced technology has made it easy to detect deformity in unborn babies. There are various prenatal screening tests for prenatal testing aimed at detecting development of disability. Whenever a fetus is found to have disability, the mother is put under pressure to terminate the pregnancy. Another form of discrimination against the disabled occurs to the human embryos. Embryos conceived in IVF (in a test tube), can be screened in the laboratory and incase of disabling conditions, the embryos are discarded. Cases have been reported whereby new born with disability have been neglected. Some of these disabilities may be spina bifida or even Down’s syndrome. Many of the children with such deformities are sedated then starved to death. In other cases, people in PVS (persistent vegetative state) have been denied food and water. This is inhuman and unethical since these people have similar infinite values just like any other person. Occasionally people have been reported to emerge from PVS after many years (Johnstone 37).
For more than a century, the state has sponsored non-disabled students while the disabled are not legally entitled to the sponsorship (Barnes and Mercer 23). The British schooling institutions such as Universities and Colleges are not equipped to accommodate the disabled in a main stream setting. This forces them to opt for segregated special facilities with limited provision of adequate skills. They are therefore left with few chances of securing jobs making them dependent all through in their lives. Many young disabled people experience negative emotions due to lack of qualifications and job. This also results from social isolations and lack of independency. The society tends to perpetuate the belief that the disabled are in adequate all because they are trained in special schools.
Currently, students are discriminated by some special programs adopted by some institutions (Barnes and Mercer 66). Such programs are the use of goggle applications where students use google programs to learn online. The blind face the challenge of using the Google apps because in most cases they are incompatible in that the soft wares are not capable of changing words into speech. Occasionally the Google’s program text is not audible; hence, users do not review what they have written. The media is not left out in discriminating the people with disabilities. Media recurrently have stereotyped the disabled people in various ways. They have been portrayed as pitiable, laughable, and as objects of violence or curiosity to participate in various activities.
Discriminating people with disabilities leads to ostracism and ill will against a portion of our population in the society. Exclusion of the handicapped is a vice, they should rather be integrated in to the society in the best way possible. In the public sectors, schools, work place and homes, it is of extreme importance to avoid programs as well as policies that pose the danger of discriminating and exclusion of the people with disabilities. People should learn to accept each other despite their capability for no one had a choice to be what he or she is and at the same time we are all prone to disability.
It is true that disabled persons are discriminated on most settings. This makes such people become marginalized and stigmatized, which in turn renders victims of discrimination in the wider society. This not only lowers their self confident and self-esteem but also lowers their quality of life, however, disability can occur at any stage in life and therefore discrimination against the disabled is a unethical since everyone is vulnerable. Therefore, the disabled should be accorded the respect they deserve by helping to enjoy life like the non-disabled without being discriminated. This will further ensure they are integrated in the social systems fully and allowed to exercise their potentialities.