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In the development of recent models connected with psychology, the significance of perception which is intuitively guided by response to stimuli generated from external world, more precisely during early formative years has profound impact in relation to many innate responses. The child stands alone in orientation to the external world, it is the ‘stimulus response association’ developed during childhood which nurtures the platform for future learning and adult behavior patterns. This necessitates the need for social and theoretical analysis which can help evaluate the impact and adjustment made by adult or youth in their matured life based on the foundation of their early childhood experiences. “
Learning is an adjustment of our behaviors and beliefs based on past experiences” (Gleitman, Gross, and Resiberg, 2010). The response to intimate stimuli in early childhood is the initiation of character and personality development in the later years. Hence, early experiences have profound effect on behavior modification in the adult life of an entity. These are very deeply connected with the notions and beliefs which are ingrained during childhood. Adult life and actions are primarily based on past experiences, which are modeled through out life in one form or the other.
The relationship which is developed in the childhood years defines the later course of adult life. It can be seen that there is a pattern of development which involves learning known stuff; learning things which are unknown, acquiring skills to communicate and associate with others and learn how to fit in a gathering or how to solve a puzzle. The early experiences are the foundation of learning which is initiated with simple things and later engage in more complicated tasks in terms of activity or relationship development. These perceptions are deeply integrated with the emotional self which acts as an anchor for motivational behaviors. It also nurtures the levels of understanding the environment and interactions with outside world. The, association which a child makes in his /her childhood years are learnt through the magic of association. Aristotle (384-322 BC) evolved the introduction of Laws of Association which directly addresses the behavior in the context of childhood experiences.
Aristotle believed that an original idea generated experience, which triggered the recurrence of associated ideas or thoughts in a recall mode. These experiences can be evaluated in their nature of contrast (dark-light); similarity (lemon-orange) and contiguity (table-stool). The early experiences are based on complex learning process which is integrated by associating one thought with another. This theory and model of learning using the correlation of integrating one idea with another had been supported by (Locke 1632-1702) and Berkeley(1658-1753). There is necessity for an image or memory to make association, which is based on learning; this propels simple learning to more complex learning. (Gleitman, Gross and Resiberg, 2010)
The analytical evidence which can be extracted from the model and theory proposed by the theory of Classical Conditioning presented by Pavlov (1849-1936) has very authoritatively drawn the conclusion which studies the link between associations and the stimulus. This has been the most investigated area of classical conditioning which integrates simple learning process with a cue to evaluation of a response based more complex stimuli. (Gleitman, Gross and Resiberg, 2010)
The phenomena of classical conditioning were originally introduced in pair with unconditioned stimulus, which reinforced the optimal response from the entity. The childhood experiences played an important role in identifying and responding to such stimuli. This has also been studied in the light of Instrumental Conditioning which incorporates in itself ‘Operant Learning’ and Thorndike’s “Law of effect” which has been the first experimental testing of instrumental conditioning. The concept of ‘The Puzzle Box” has been introduced to test the strength of the response in accordance with the consequences. If evaluated with insightful observation one can say that the phenomena of classical conditioning touches the subject of learning, experience and adult behavior in a very concrete manner. (Gleitman, Gross and Resiberg, 2010)
Another person, whose model has been convincing, is Skinner (1940s) who presented a sharp distinction between classical and operant conditioning which was to be evaluated under through examination of the subjects who were asked for their voluntary response. His model has been forceful in reinforcing the success and approximate steps involved in assessing and examining the complex task. The early reinforcement and shaping process is initiated with simplicity of tasks, simple steps and then gradually moving on the complex behavior. Some of the reinforcements which are often effective in behavior modification are basic necessities like food, water, rest and entertainment. This would help develop a rational predictability which is in harmony with the primary reinforces. (Gleitman, Gross and Resiberg, 2010)
The adult behavior very often mimics the conditions and patterns which are defined in the early years of childhood. Hence the stimulus provided during the early years is impressionable and long term. It can change the course of an adult’s perception towards life. The behavior is the single most significant task which can be targeted in early years with fixed and variable reinforcement strategy from the parental team. This reinforcement works to bring about behavior modifications over time. The reinforcement is directly linked with the ration and the interval; the time elapsed plays a critical role in making the behavior modification a second nature in the subject .The role of routine and scheduling can help the implementation process remarkably.
The book has been extensive and has approached the impact of early experiences on cultivation of traits in adult life with forceful historical and current background research. The psychology is presented in a very pragmatic manner which almost mirrors the current organizational portrayal of the corporate world. Gross (2010) has very convincingly presented the significance of psychology as the ore of discipline which connects and strengthens the human link. The emotional satisfaction is phenomenal and learning has been integrated well with teaching. The emotions are the tools by which the science of mind can be evaluated and penetrated into; hence the role of mental imagery is also vital in any transformational approach.
The authors have approached the issue of experiential learning and early childhood experiences in formation of adult characteristics in very forceful manner. The complexity of the subject matter is very analytically approached with integration of the five forces of psychology action, cognition, social behavior, development and individual difference. The biological basis is also taken into account. The serious issue of experiential psychology is taken in a serious and convincing manner with depth of material which comes across with valid arguments. In light of the theory presented (Gleitman, Gross and Resiberg, 2010) the issue of childhood experiences is a subject which requires comprehensive understanding over a period of time. The subjective information needs to be obtained and the gathered information needs to be validated in accordance with the psychological gold standard.
There is also a need to integrate deep philosophical line of questioning which are brilliant and unique to the parental participation. The unique dimension of child experiences has to be tracked into adulthood to identify patterns which are backed by pertinent portrayals of character traits in an individual. The intrinsic value of the individual or subject needs to be taken into account with record of the rewarding outcomes and high quality examination which is interactive. The mysteries of life and its game needs to be evaluated which can address the deep and dark fathom of life experiences. The curiosity needs to be sustained by sound understanding of human values.