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Substance abuse problem is of a current interest worldwide. In line with smoking, it has become one of the most frequent causes of death in Australia, including the accidents and domestic violence due to alcohol or drug intoxication (Caltabiano, Bytne, Sarafino, 2008). There is a large quantity of factors influencing the substance abuse. Psychological, social, and biological factors are considered to be the main ones (National Health and Medical Research Council, 2009).
The social influence is presented in the fact that every cultural group has its own attitude towards substance consumption. For example, a glass of wine at dinner is common for some European countries, such as Greece and France, and, moreover, it is not considered as being harmful. In Germany, beer has become a drink to hold a festival after (The Oktoberfest). As distinct from the mentioned countries, the residents of Islamic countries reject an alcohol due to their religious views. As it can be seen, in the countries, where alcohol is being accepted as harmless drink, the abuse rates are higher than in the countries denying it.
Second, the psychological factor deals with the person’s mind condition. People use substances in order to avoid stresses, forget various life problems, and get some pleasure. Alcohol or drugs seem to be the way out for a person experiencing some unfavorable life circumstances. Substances may serve as an entertainment for those, who consider life being dull and seek for the thrill (Caltabriano et al., 2008).
The biological factor may be the heredity. Substance addiction may be considered as a genetic disease, since the researchers proved that children, whose parents have had some kind of substance abuse, are more likely to become abusers as well (Calrabriano et al., 2008). Furthermore, women using substances before and while pregnant, are likely to bear a child having an innate addiction to the substance she used. Along with innate substance abuse, using alcohol or drugs before and across the pregnancy may result into the various diseases (National Health and Medical Research Council, 2009).
The standard drink is the portion of drink containing alcohol that relatively contains assigned amount of pure alcohol (ethanol). The notion of a standard drink significantly varies from country to country. In Australia, a standard is defined as containing 10 g of ethanol per drink, i.e. 12.5 ml of pure alcohol (National Health and Medical Research Council, 2013).
One of the most common problems in defining the amount of alcohol person consumed is the complexity of conversion of a standard drink into real-life situations. Furthermore, there are no specified glass sized in public drinking establishments, and most glasses hold more than one standard drink (National Health and Medical Research Council, 2009). Thus, the amount of alcohol consumed is underestimated, and the notion of safe alcohol amount cannot be defined clearly. This is especially dangerous for those, who are at the risk group. According to the NHMRC’s data, the safe dose of alcohol is 2-3 standard drinks for male, and 1-1.5 for female respondents. This corresponds to all drink types, since there are no common glasses sizes of alcohol drinks, as it was mentioned above.
From the perspective of the individuals, who have already received an anti-alcohol treatment, it is not advisable to use alcohol at all, since it raises the danger of relapse. Other useful advices to prevent relapse include the use of emetic medicines in order to create an aversion to alcohol, stimulus control, desensitization to stress and depressed moods (Calrabriano et al., 2008). The behavior during the post-addiction period is an important stage, since there exists a large number of risks connected to the return of addiction. In case, if a person decided to give up drinking habit, the every contact with alcohol and alcohol containing substances should be eliminated in order to prevent a relapse.
Individuals drink alcohol and use drugs generally for enjoyment, relaxation, and stress coping purposes. Unfortunately, they do not take into account the consequences of their actions. It is rather easy to become addicted to a substance, but it takes time to get rid of it.