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Authentication of evidence is always specific for each type of evidence and follows certain guidelines to judicial discretion. For one, Maps or Charts, it’s a general requirement that the original versions be used. In this regard, there may not be a need for originator of the material to confirm their authenticity as the mark ‘original’ may just suffice. In addition, sketches and diagrams generated by the police are as authentic as they are considered accurate within the judicial discretion. Anything that does not meet this threshold may easily be dismissed as hearsay. On the other hand, the use of photographs is generally broader as they as they meet the description of substantial and accurate depiction of the issue at hand. However, photographs that only support one party’s theory about the incident may be regarded as untrustworthy and therefore dismissed prematurely (Siemer, 1984).
Plaster casts and models are often considered the most admissible especially when they can be viewed in all the dimensions. More often than not, the construction material is immaterial as long as a three dimensional structure is obtainable. Furthermore, professional presentation or modifications that occur in models may be acceptable even if they are not precisely to scale. Conversely, microscopic enlargements are generally of limited application up to power twenty or less subjects to the criminal lab rules of the state involved (Koppenhaver, 1996).