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Climate change is one of the greatest issues being experienced by the world today. Climate change refers to a variation in climate, which is imputed directly or indirectly to human activity. Human activities modify the constitution of the global atmosphere and cause climate variability observed over a comparable period. Global warming is the rise in heat enclosed in the earth's atmosphere emanating from excess mission of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide.

These artificially occurring gases including methane and nitrous oxide form a sheet in the atmosphere reflecting the sun's heat back to the earth. These gases are discharged into the air by remains fuel and the result is an alteration in the natural landscape. The environment is delicate and the results is the warming effect. Climate change is a major concern in our lives. Modern human activities impose huge amounts of stress on the earth that nature cannot manage. These result in climatic changes such as global warming, ozone depletion, and the El Nino. These effects affect the vulnerable poor communities.

Climate change has reduced access to drinking water, negatively affecting the health of the poor people. This in turn is a great threat to many countries and will pose a threat to food security. The food prices have surged drastically, causing millions of people get into a food crisis. More to this is it makes it difficult to achieve the millennium development goals. With focus on the millennium goals, the effect on health education and living standards cannot be neglected.

Africa in particular faces intense desertification problems in rural areas, are as a result of climate change. In developing countries, rising deforestation practices so as to meet the high fuel prices have resulted in a rise in poverty levels. In developing countries, the poor will continue being affected by global warming. Private players who have a mindset of making profits always cannot play their roles effectively. This is one of the reasons for low participation of private payer in the fight against climate problems.

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The hardest hit countries are the developing countries who cannot sustain themselves in times of crisis. Climate change has the same root cause all over. The major cause is human activities in search for an easier and more comfortable lifestyle. Lack of even rain patterns has led to migration of people who are evacuating the hardest hit areas to seek solutions. Rainforests are dying due to deforestation and lack of rains.

Climate change has also affected the manufacturing sector. Taking an example of oil. Most activities depend on oil for the supply of food, shelter, education, medicine, and other basic needs. Manufacturing companies depend on oil for power and driving the industries. Low oil production level affects the ability of manufacturing companies to carry out their tasks efficiently. The laws of supply and demand state that the scarcer a resource is the higher its price. Oil is used in the beginning of a production process. Its scarcity influences the prices of other commodities hence causing inflation.

Effects of climate change to the environment have been so adverse. Solutions are needed to cub the situation. We need to develop ways that the ecosystem can adapt to be able to retain productivity. The ecosystem should also in turn be able buffer adverse weather occurrences, provide fresh water and a myriad of other services for all living organism, and sustain life (Barnett). In addition, humans need the knowledge and tools to effectively adjust to the effects of climate change. Protecting the earth's ecosystem produces immediate and cost effective climate change solutions that will forever be lost  if an immediate action is not put in place.

Deforestation is a major source of greenhouse gas emissions. It accounts for roughly over fifteen percent of the total gas emissions to the atmosphere, more than a combination of vehicles, ships, trains and planes. Reducing the rate of global deforestation is one of the targets to stabilization. In addition, reducing deforestation an planting of trees cuts down the rates of harmful effects on the ecosystem like floods and droughts. It also contributes to the security of food and fresh water. This means that maintaining these ecosystem will ensure that humans and other organisms can remain lively to the effects of climate change (Barnett).

The use of renewable sources of energy is a greater alternative to cubing problems of dependence on oil and coal. This makes the country more stable. Solar serves best as an alternative energy solution. Solar energy reduces pollution and the problem of gas emissions into the atmosphere.

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The use of bio-fuels to replace the use of petrol and diesel in fuel stations is also a solution to climate change. Petrol and diesel release harmful gases into the air when they burn up. These gases act as a source of air pollution and in-turn effect the weather changes. Bio-fuels are made from agricultural remains. Less harmful gases are produced when they burn up. In-turn they are much safer and cleaner to use as compared to petrol and diesel. Despite being a much cleaner source of energy, bio fuel producing plants should not be placed close to food crops. They will compete for food and water and since bio-fuel plants are much stronger, food supplies diminishes (Barnett).

The government should also educate members of the public on environmental hazards. By enlightening the society on environmental hazards and ways of improving the environment, members of the entire public will take caution on pollution and factors affecting the environment. People will also take great care and raise their standards of living in a much pollution free environment.

Renewable researches have evolved to solve problems of climate change. The government should increase funding to these research projects. With enough funds to carry out research, more and intensively accurate results will be produced. Another thing is that those carrying out the research  get motivated to do a superb job. They will create awareness on climate change solution and sort the problem in return.

The government should also empower community environmental educators. Once the community educators are empowered, they will be able to intensify knowledge to member of the society on climate change, activities that lead to climate changes and what the society should do to avoid effects of climate change. With motivation, the educators are able to carry out their tasks diligently and with ease.

The government should set laws to govern production process in industries. These laws should govern the production process to regulate green house emissions. Industrial development in most countries is so rampant. More waste thus is given off with the increased industrial growth. To discourage industrial pollution, the government should set measures to deal with the situation. These measures include raising of tax on using fossil fuel and encouraging industries to use bio-energy. The government can also come up with higher technological ideas on waste treatment system. This may be a greater success if different countries collaborate to cub effects of climatic changes (Clean Up).

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Solutions to climatic changes can be more effective if members in the society change their styles of living. Individuals can contribute to reducing climate changes through changing their living habits. Use of public vehicles instead of personal cars can reduce energy consumptions like petrol and electricity. Pollution is also reduced, as there is less gas emission into the atmosphere.

Carrying out climate extenuation and adaptation enterprises in the field raises awareness about the effects of climate change to the society. It also helps to charge them to take action. Discouraging the investment of Coal-fired power stations is a practice that requires quick intensification. Coal is a great source of pollution to the environment. Discouraging the growth of coal-fired power stations reduces deforestation and hence conserving the environment. This help to reduce climatic changes.

The government should create monitoring bodies at national and local levels. These organizations will be responsible for putting an eye on the policies laid down and ensure that the policies are being implemented. Taking a case study of Brazil. There was monitoring program set up from a collaboration of the private sector and the government. It was responsible for effecting the reduction in emitting fossil fuels into the atmosphere. This program was a success as Brazil significantly reduced its emissions from fossil fuels to using ethanol without affecting staple food productions.

Adaptation measures could also help to ease climatic change issues. For example, in Vietnam individuals planted mangrove trees to break waves associated with typhoons and to act as a buffer to sea dykes. Though the program was quiet costly, the benefits were favorable. The typhoons did not claim any lives, they also caused no damage to the dyke except for the minimal damage experienced on the properties. The mangrove trees also improved the living standards of the people of Vietnam. It also helped in poverty eradication (EssayForum).

Using a different mitigation process against carbon emission reduces effects of climate change. Reducing the amounts of carbon emissions fights the root cause of problems associated with climatic changes. Reduction of carbon emissions can be done in several ways. Buildings contribute almost half of all greenhouse gas emissions. Using a thicker insulation and temperature regulation helps to reduce gas emissions. Energy efficient buildings improve cement-making process by using alternative fuels to fire up the kiln. These reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the developing countries.

With the increase in population, there should be adequate measures to follow in order to balance food production and industrial production. Individuals need to allocate their lands well so as to balance the two. Use of second hand fuels is essential in areas with both crop and industrial production. Second hand fuels like husks from grains and wheat chaff can be used to generate energy. When this is used it would not affect the availability of food grains.

Another way of reducing effects of climate change is by using technology that is more advanced. It is better to invest in a more expensive but effective method of controlling climate change than using a cheaper method, which is less effective. Using solar panels as a source of energy is much friendly to the environment as compared to using fossil fuel. Solar panels are more expensive than use of fossil or bio-energy but it is a less pollutant.

In conclusion, we should prepare ourselves for climatic alterations at all times. Rising temperatures unexpectedly should be taken into account of their frequent occurrence. We should act responsibly in case of any changes to avoid natural disasters and intolerable temperatures from occurring. Sharing technological advances and stabilizing our population is necessary.

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