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Robert Rauschenberg has had far-reaching effects on visual culture through his work which had central influence in most of the important developments of art. He provided numerous blueprints for creative innovation by upcoming youths (Joseph & Rauschenberg, 2003). He mixed art with life making his work remain profound to date.
He was free-thinking and worked outside confines of Abstract Expressionism, and adopted a methodology seeking to combine art with everyday life, a principle that was in absolute conflict to the central advocates of the classical art. In his vocation, he created disagreement within the scenes of art in New York with a successive ‘artistic pranks’, which included his renowned erasure of a Willem drawing (Joseph & Rauschenberg, 2003). This insubordination of an established work of artist earned him immediate notoriety and he was labeled New York’s enfant terrible. Despite this reputation, he was absolutely self-disciplined. He was unwavering to challenge himself. In 1951, he finished a sequence of white paintings, followed by black paintings. He was limited to monochromatic palette, and performed an inventive exorcism, depicting the restrictions imposed obsolete so that all psychological limitations no more existed.
After that he began to blend vertical painterly works with horizontal, sculptural elements. His combination of the two-dimensional plane of a picture and an object that is three-dimensional is currently of famous status as it was the discovery art of a new ‘nature’, which he termed as ‘Combines’ (Joseph & Rauschenberg, 2003). According to Alloway, ‘Pop Art’ refers to a contemporary shift in attitude with regard to subject matter and art techniques from rarefied of such contents as myths- subjects of fine art to focus on everyday objects to make the artistic techniques commercial. Warhol, for example, elevated mechanical duplication to Fine Art status, angering some critics despite massive purchases of his work in paintings such as 200 Campbell's Soup Cans (1962) (wiseGEEK, 2012).
Grafiti means scratched or painted drawings or words on a wall. It has its origin from Greek word “graphein”- to write. It represents man’s desire to communicate and/or a display of existence as it is available even in caves. The tag for its artists is an individual’s advertisement as opposed to self-portrayal over demolition and/or social/political propaganda. For instance, TAKI 183 had his tag short for Demetaki, a Greek name for Demetrius and 183 addressing 183rd street in Heights of Washington. He wrote his nickname on back streets of New York to advertise himself as he was a foot messenger.
The movement originated in the USA in the late 1970s, and became popular in the mid 1980s. The Movement is characterized by an approach that is geared at graffiti in civic spaces, attaining a totally new esthetic. In the 1970s, some real art works were written on walls of houses, subway cars or trains, whose creators, lively under a simulated nickname, became heroes. In addition, the art trade also discovered in 1980’s that many artists left subculture art to commercial art working as gallery sprayers.
The main representatives of the Graffiti Movement, in both graphic art and panel painting, is Keith Haring (1958-90) who died at a youthful age. He had his roots in activities of illegal graffiti and went on with this style in painting and graphic art, where he used mixed elements from Pop Art. His work was highly affected by graffiti and found in civic places and also on canvas. In the real sense, it was his numerous white chalk drawings in subway system of New York City that first alerted the public about him. He was committed to avail his artwork to a huge audience, and strongly supported children’s programs, which are still funded through this foundation. Haring’s work was unique in the way he used simple outlines, strong color, and rhythmic lines (ArtClubBlog, 2010).